Both Mechanistic and data-driven approaches|
Cancer|
Data-driven approaches|
Mechanistic approaches|
Opinion/commentary|
Review articles|

Wickramasinghe, Nilmini, Prem Prakash Jayaraman, Abdur Rahim Mohammad Forkan, Nalika Ulapane, Rohit Kaul, Stephen Vaughan, and John Zelcer. ‘A Vision for Leveraging the Concept of Digital Twins to Support the Provision of Personalized Cancer Care’. IEEE Internet Computing 26, no. 5 (1 September 2022): 17–24.

Both Mechanistic and data-driven approaches|
Data-driven approaches|
Mechanistic approaches|
Opinion/commentary|
Taxonomy|

Strobel, Gero, Frederik Möller, and Frederik Moeller. ‘HEALTHCARE IN THE ERA OF DIGITAL TWINS: TOWARDS A DOMAIN-SPECIFIC TAXONOMY’, 2022, 11.

Both Mechanistic and data-driven approaches|
Data-driven approaches|
Mechanistic approaches|
Pharmaceutical (drug development etc.)|

Sokolov, Michael, Moritz von Stosch, Harini Narayanan, Fabian Feidl, and Alessandro Butté. ‘Hybrid Modeling — a Key Enabler towards Realizing Digital Twins in Biopharma?’ Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering 34 (December 2021): 100715.

Both Mechanistic and data-driven approaches|
Cell related|
Data-driven approaches|
Mechanistic approaches|
Review articles|
Tissue engineering|

Möller, Johannes, and Ralf Pörtner. ‘Digital Twins for Tissue Culture Techniques—Concepts, Expectations, and State of the Art’. Processes 9, no. 3 (2 March 2021): 447.

Both Mechanistic and data-driven approaches|
Cancer|
Data-driven approaches|
Mechanistic approaches|

Meraghni, Safa, Khaled Benaggoune, Zeina Al Masry, Labib Sadek Terrissa, Christine Devalland, and Noureddine Zerhouni. ‘Towards Digital Twins Driven Breast Cancer Detection’. In Intelligent Computing, edited by Kohei Arai, 285:87–99. Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2021.

Both Mechanistic and data-driven approaches|
Data-driven approaches|
Mechanistic approaches|
Software|

Liu, Ying, Lin Zhang, Yuan Yang, Longfei Zhou, Lei Ren, Fei Wang, Rong Liu, Zhibo Pang, and M. Jamal Deen. ‘A Novel Cloud-Based Framework for the Elderly Healthcare Services Using Digital Twin’. IEEE Access 7 (2019): 49088–101.

Both Mechanistic and data-driven approaches|
Data-driven approaches|
Mechanistic approaches|
Opinion/commentary|
Pandemic (virus related)|

Laubenbacher, Reinhard, James P. Sluka, and James A. Glazier. ‘Using Digital Twins in Viral Infection’. Science 371, no. 6534 (12 March 2021): 1105–6.

Both Mechanistic and data-driven approaches|
Data-driven approaches|
Immune system|
Mechanistic approaches|
Opinion/commentary|

Laubenbacher, R., A. Niarakis, T. Helikar, G. An, B. Shapiro, R. S. Malik-Sheriff, T. J. Sego, A. Knapp, P. Macklin, and J. A. Glazier. ‘Building Digital Twins of the Human Immune System: Toward a Roadmap’. Npj Digital Medicine 5, no. 1 (December 2022): 64.

Both Mechanistic and data-driven approaches|
Data-driven approaches|
Mechanistic approaches|
Opinion/commentary|
Pandemic (virus related)|
Review articles|

Khan, Asiya, Madison Milne-Ives, Edward Meinert, Gloria E Iyawa, Ray B Jones, and Alex N Josephraj. ‘A Scoping Review of Digital Twins in the Context of the Covid-19 Pandemic’. Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology 13 (January 2022): 117959722211021.

Both Mechanistic and data-driven approaches|
Data-driven approaches|
Mechanistic approaches|
Stroke|

Herrgårdh, Tilda, Elizabeth Hunter, Kajsa Tunedal, Håkan Örman, Julia Amann, Francisco Abad Navarro, Catalina Martinez-Costa, John D. Kelleher, and Gunnar Cedersund. ‘Digital Twins and Hybrid Modelling for Simulation of Physiological Variables and Stroke Risk’. Preprint. Systems Biology, 27 March 2022.