Both Mechanistic and data-driven approaches|
Cancer|
Data-driven approaches|
Mechanistic approaches|
Opinion/commentary|
Review articles|

Wickramasinghe, Nilmini, Prem Prakash Jayaraman, Abdur Rahim Mohammad Forkan, Nalika Ulapane, Rohit Kaul, Stephen Vaughan, and John Zelcer. ‘A Vision for Leveraging the Concept of Digital Twins to Support the Provision of Personalized Cancer Care’. IEEE Internet Computing 26, no. 5 (1 September 2022): 17–24.

Mechanistic approaches|
Opinion/commentary|

‘The Future of Bionic Limbs’. Research Features, no. 134 (2 March 2021).

Mechanistic approaches|
Pharmaceutical (drug development etc.)|

Subramanian, Kalyanasundaram. ‘Digital Twin for Drug Discovery and Development—The Virtual Liver’. Journal of the Indian Institute of Science 100, no. 4 (October 2020): 653–62.

Both Mechanistic and data-driven approaches|
Data-driven approaches|
Mechanistic approaches|
Opinion/commentary|
Taxonomy|

Strobel, Gero, Frederik Möller, and Frederik Moeller. ‘HEALTHCARE IN THE ERA OF DIGITAL TWINS: TOWARDS A DOMAIN-SPECIFIC TAXONOMY’, 2022, 11.

Both Mechanistic and data-driven approaches|
Data-driven approaches|
Mechanistic approaches|
Pharmaceutical (drug development etc.)|

Sokolov, Michael, Moritz von Stosch, Harini Narayanan, Fabian Feidl, and Alessandro Butté. ‘Hybrid Modeling — a Key Enabler towards Realizing Digital Twins in Biopharma?’ Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering 34 (December 2021): 100715.

Both Mechanistic and data-driven approaches|
Cell related|
Data-driven approaches|
Mechanistic approaches|
Review articles|
Tissue engineering|

Möller, Johannes, and Ralf Pörtner. ‘Digital Twins for Tissue Culture Techniques—Concepts, Expectations, and State of the Art’. Processes 9, no. 3 (2 March 2021): 447.

Both Mechanistic and data-driven approaches|
Cancer|
Data-driven approaches|
Mechanistic approaches|

Meraghni, Safa, Khaled Benaggoune, Zeina Al Masry, Labib Sadek Terrissa, Christine Devalland, and Noureddine Zerhouni. ‘Towards Digital Twins Driven Breast Cancer Detection’. In Intelligent Computing, edited by Kohei Arai, 285:87–99. Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2021.

Mechanistic approaches|
Respiratory|
Software|

Masison, J., J. Beezley, Y. Mei, Hal Ribeiro, A. C. Knapp, L. Sordo Vieira, B. Adhikari, et al. ‘A Modular Computational Framework for Medical Digital Twins’. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 118, no. 20 (18 May 2021): e2024287118.

Both Mechanistic and data-driven approaches|
Data-driven approaches|
Mechanistic approaches|
Software|

Liu, Ying, Lin Zhang, Yuan Yang, Longfei Zhou, Lei Ren, Fei Wang, Rong Liu, Zhibo Pang, and M. Jamal Deen. ‘A Novel Cloud-Based Framework for the Elderly Healthcare Services Using Digital Twin’. IEEE Access 7 (2019): 49088–101.

Both Mechanistic and data-driven approaches|
Data-driven approaches|
Mechanistic approaches|
Opinion/commentary|
Pandemic (virus related)|

Laubenbacher, Reinhard, James P. Sluka, and James A. Glazier. ‘Using Digital Twins in Viral Infection’. Science 371, no. 6534 (12 March 2021): 1105–6.